Drug General Information
Drug ID
D03KAY
Drug Name
Darunavir + ritonavir + oseltamivir + hydroxychloroquine
Synonyms
Prezista + norvir + rseltamivir + oxichloroquine
Drug Type
Combination drug
Indication Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Phase 3 [1]
Therapeutic Class
Antiviral Agents
Structure
Download
2D MOL

Target
Target(s) HUMAN glycosylation of host receptor (GHR) Target Info Inhibitor [2], [3]
The mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects include inhibition of pH-dependent viral fusion/replication and prevention of viral envelope glycoprotein as well as host receptor protein glycosylation.
HUMAN pH-dependent viral fusion/replication (pH-DVF/R) Target Info Inhibitor [2], [3]
The mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects include inhibition of pH-dependent viral fusion/replication and prevention of viral envelope glycoprotein as well as host receptor protein glycosylation.
HUMAN toll-like receptor 7/9 signalling pathway (TLR7/9 pathway) Target Info Inhibitor [4], [5]
Hydroxychloroquine interferes with TLR7 and TLR9 ligand binding and TLR signalling (through lysosomal inhibition and reduced MyD88 signalling), which inhibits TLR-mediated cell activation and cytokine production. Evidence demonstrates that hydroxychloroquine has antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndromecoronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) in vitro and in small, poorly controlled or uncontrolled clinical studies.
References
1 ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04303299) Various Combination of Protease Inhibitors, Oseltamivir, Favipiravir, and Hydroxychloroquine for Treatment of COVID-19 : A Randomized Control Trial
2 Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020 Mar;30(3):269-271.
3 Insights from nanomedicine into chloroquine efficacy against COVID-19. Nat Nanotechnol. 2020 Apr;15(4):247-249.
4 Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: implications for rheumatology. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2020 Mar;16(3):155-166.
5 Use of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine During the COVID-19 Pandemic: What Every Clinician Should Know. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Mar 31.

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