Target General Information
Target ID T10735 Target Info
Target Name Histidine decarboxylase (HDC)
Synonyms Human histidine decarboxylase
Target Type Clinical trial Target
Gene Name HDC
Biochemical Class Carbon-carbon lyase
UniProt ID
The Transcription Factors (TFs) Regulating This Target
TF Name GATA-binding factor 6 (GATA-6)
Classification Superclass Zinc-coordinating DNA-binding domains
Class diverse Cys4 zinc fingers
Family GATA-Factors
Subfamily vertebral GATA-Factors
Regulation Type Decrease
Regulation Mechanism GATA-6 is a negative regulator of basal HDC gene expression by inhibiting expression of the wild-type HDC promoter. [1]
Evidence Score (E-score) 2 +
1 Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Assay [3]
2 Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay [1]
UniProt ID
Sequence
MALTDGGWCLPKRFGAAGADASDSRAFPAREPSTPPSPISSSSSSCSRGGERGPGGASNC
GTPQLDTEAAAGPPARSLLLSSYASHPFGAPHGPSAPGVAGPGGNLSSWEDLLLFTDLDQ
AATASKLLWSSRGAKLSPFAPEQPEEMYQTLAALSSQGPAAYDGAPGGFVHSAAAAAAAA
AAASSPVYVPTTRVGSMLPGLPYHLQGSGSGPANHAGGAGAHPGWPQASADSPPYGSGGG
AAGGGAAGPGGAGSAAAHVSARFPYSPSPPMANGAAREPGGYAAAGSGGAGGVSGGGSSL
AAMGGREPQYSSLSAARPLNGTYHHHHHHHHHHPSPYSPYVGAPLTPAWPAGPFETPVLH
SLQSRAGAPLPVPRGPSADLLEDLSESRECVNCGSIQTPLWRRDGTGHYLCNACGLYSKM
NGLSRPLIKPQKRVPSSRRLGLSCANCHTTTTTLWRRNAEGEPVCNACGLYMKLHGVPRP
LAMKKEGIQTRKRKPKNINKSKTCSGNSNNSIPMTPTSTSSNSDDCSKNTSPTTQPTASG
AGAPVMTGAGESTNPENSELKYSGQDGLYIGVSLASPAEVTSSVRPDSWCALALA
The Genes (Co-regulated by This TF) Grouped Based on Their Biochemical Classes
Lyases [+] 1 Lyases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) Clinical trial Target Target Info [1]
Nuclear hormone receptors [+] 1 Nuclear hormone receptors Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4A) Literature-reported Target Target Info [4]
TF Name Sp1 transcription factor (SP1)
Classification Superclass Zinc-coordinating DNA-binding domains
Class Cys2His2 zinc finger domain
Family Ubiquitous factors
Regulation Mechanism A region including the GC box sequence in the HDC promoter is essential for transactivation and that SP1 binds to this GC box. [2]
Evidence Score (E-score) 1 +
1 Nuclear Run-On Transcription Assay, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay [2]
UniProt ID
Sequence
MSDQDHSMDEMTAVVKIEKGVGGNNGGNGNGGGAFSQARSSSTGSSSSTGGGGQESQPSP
LALLAATCSRIESPNENSNNSQGPSQSGGTGELDLTATQLSQGANGWQIISSSSGATPTS
KEQSGSSTNGSNGSESSKNRTVSGGQYVVAAAPNLQNQQVLTGLPGVMPNIQYQVIPQFQ
TVDGQQLQFAATGAQVQQDGSGQIQIIPGANQQIITNRGSGGNIIAAMPNLLQQAVPLQG
LANNVLSGQTQYVTNVPVALNGNITLLPVNSVSAATLTPSSQAVTISSSGSQESGSQPVT
SGTTISSASLVSSQASSSSFFTNANSYSTTTTTSNMGIMNFTTSGSSGTNSQGQTPQRVS
GLQGSDALNIQQNQTSGGSLQAGQQKEGEQNQQTQQQQILIQPQLVQGGQALQALQAAPL
SGQTFTTQAISQETLQNLQLQAVPNSGPIIIRTPTVGPNGQVSWQTLQLQNLQVQNPQAQ
TITLAPMQGVSLGQTSSSNTTLTPIASAASIPAGTVTVNAAQLSSMPGLQTINLSALGTS
GIQVHPIQGLPLAIANAPGDHGAQLGLHGAGGDGIHDDTAGGEEGENSPDAQPQAGRRTR
REACTCPYCKDSEGRGSGDPGKKKQHICHIQGCGKVYGKTSHLRAHLRWHTGERPFMCTW
SYCGKRFTRSDELQRHKRTHTGEKKFACPECPKRFMRSDHLSKHIKTHQNKKGGPGVALS
VGTLPLDSGAGSEGSGTATPSALITTNMVAMEAICPEGIARLANSGINVMQVADLQSINI
SGNGF
The Genes (Co-regulated by This TF) Grouped Based on Their Biochemical Classes
Acyltransferases [+] 2 Acyltransferases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [5]
2 Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) Clinical trial Target Target Info [6]
Apolipoproteins [+] 2 Apolipoproteins Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [7]
2 Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Clinical trial Target Target Info [8]
Apoptosis regulators [+] 1 Apoptosis regulators Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein Mcl-1 (MCL1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [9]
Carbon-nitrogen hydrolases [+] 1 Carbon-nitrogen hydrolases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Adenosine deaminase (ADA) Successful Target Target Info [10]
Caveolin proteins [+] 1 Caveolin proteins Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Caveolin 1 (CAV1) Literature-reported Target Target Info [11]
Collagens [+] 1 Collagens Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Collagen I (COL1A2) Clinical trial Target Target Info [12]
Cytokines / Cytokine receptors [+] 2 Cytokines / Cytokine receptors Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Erythropoietin Receptor (EPOR) Successful Target Target Info [13]
2 Interferon-gamma (IFNG) Successful Target Target Info [14]
Ester hydrolases [+] 2 Ester hydrolases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Successful Target Target Info [15]
2 M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 (MPIP3) Literature-reported Target Target Info [16]
G protein-coupled receptors [+] 3 G protein-coupled receptors Co-regulated By This TF +
1 5-HT 1A receptor (HTR1A) Successful Target Target Info [17]
2 C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) Successful Target Target Info [18]
3 Thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) Successful Target Target Info [19]
Glycoproteins [+] 2 Glycoproteins Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) Clinical trial Target Target Info [20]
2 Tracheobronchial mucin 5A (MUC5AC) Literature-reported Target Target Info [21]
Growth factors [+] 4 Growth factors Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGFA) Clinical trial Target Target Info [22]
2 Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) Clinical trial Target Target Info [23]
3 Thrombomodulin (THBD) Discontinued Target Target Info [24]
4 Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) Successful Target Target Info [25]
Immunoglobulins [+] 1 Immunoglobulins Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1 (ICAM1) Successful Target Target Info [26]
Integrins [+] 1 Integrins Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Integrin alpha-2 (ITGA2) Clinical trial Target Target Info [27]
Kinases [+] 5 Kinases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Casein kinase II alpha (CSNK2A1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [28]
2 Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Successful Target Target Info [29]
3 Serine/threonine-protein kinase pim-1 (PIM1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [30]
4 Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) Clinical trial Target Target Info [31]
5 Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) Successful Target Target Info [32]
Lipoprotein receptors [+] 1 Lipoprotein receptors Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) Successful Target Target Info [33]
Lyases [+] 2 Lyases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) Clinical trial Target Target Info [2]
2 Leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S) Patented-recorded Target Target Info [34]
Nuclear hormone receptors [+] 2 Nuclear hormone receptors Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4A) Literature-reported Target Target Info [4]
2 Progesterone receptor (PGR) Successful Target Target Info [35]
Oxidoreductases [+] 9 Oxidoreductases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) Literature-reported Target Target Info [36]
2 Bacterial Triosephosphate isomerase (Bact TPI) Literature-reported Target Target Info [37]
3 Catalase (CAT) Clinical trial Target Target Info [38]
4 Cholesterol desmolase (CYP11A1) Successful Target Target Info [39]
5 Dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) Clinical trial Target Target Info [40]
6 Estradiol 17 beta-dehydrogenase 1 (17-beta-HSD1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [41]
7 Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [42]
8 Nitric-oxide synthase endothelial (NOS3) Clinical trial Target Target Info [43]
9 Superoxide dismutase Cu-Zn (SOD Cu-Zn) Clinical trial Target Target Info [44]
Peptidases [+] 4 Peptidases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Caspase-8 (CASP8) Patented-recorded Target Target Info [45]
2 Cathepsin D (CTSD) Clinical trial Target Target Info [46]
3 Dibasic-processing enzyme (Furin) Patented-recorded Target Target Info [47]
4 Neutral endopeptidase (MME) Clinical trial Target Target Info [48]
Pro-neuropeptides [+] 1 Pro-neuropeptides Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Literature-reported Target Target Info [49]
Small GTPases [+] 1 Small GTPases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 GTPase HRas (HRAS) Literature-reported Target Target Info [50]
Somatotropin / Prolactins [+] 1 Somatotropin / Prolactins Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Somatotropin (GH1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [51]
Transcription factors [+] 2 Transcription factors Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Transcription factor Sp1 (SP1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [52]
2 Wilms tumor protein (WT1) Clinical trial Target Target Info [53]
Transferrins [+] 1 Transferrins Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Transferrin (TF) Clinical trial Target Target Info [54]
Zinc-fingers [+] 1 Zinc-fingers Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Utrophin (UTRN) Clinical trial Target Target Info [55]
TF Name GATA-binding factor 4 (GATA-4)
Classification Superclass Zinc-coordinating DNA-binding domains
Class diverse Cys4 zinc fingers
Family GATA-Factors
Subfamily vertebral GATA-Factors
Regulation Type Decrease
Regulation Mechanism GATA-4 is a negative regulator of basal HDC gene expression by inhibiting expression of the wild-type HDC promoter. [1]
Evidence Score (E-score) 1 +
1 Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay [1]
UniProt ID
Sequence
MYQSLAMAANHGPPPGAYEAGGPGAFMHGAGAASSPVYVPTPRVPSSVLGLSYLQGGGAG
SASGGASGGSSGGAASGAGPGTQQGSPGWSQAGADGAAYTPPPVSPRFSFPGTTGSLAAA
AAAAAAREAAAYSSGGGAAGAGLAGREQYGRAGFAGSYSSPYPAYMADVGASWAAAAAAS
AGPFDSPVLHSLPGRANPAARHPNLDMFDDFSEGRECVNCGAMSTPLWRRDGTGHYLCNA
CGLYHKMNGINRPLIKPQRRLSASRRVGLSCANCQTTTTTLWRRNAEGEPVCNACGLYMK
LHGVPRPLAMRKEGIQTRKRKPKNLNKSKTPAAPSGSESLPPASGASSNSSNATTSSSEE
MRPIKTEPGLSSHYGHSSSVSQTFSVSAMSGHGPSIHPVLSALKLSPQGYASPVSQSPQT
SSKQDSWNSLVLADSHGDIITA
The Genes (Co-regulated by This TF) Grouped Based on Their Biochemical Classes
Lyases [+] 1 Lyases Co-regulated By This TF +
1 Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) Clinical trial Target Target Info [1]
References
REF 1 GATA proteins are potential negative regulators of HDC gene expression in the gastric epithelium. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Jun 7;1576(1-2):198-202.
REF 2 Mast cell-/basophil-specific transcriptional regulation of human L-histidine decarboxylase gene by CpG methylation in the promoter region. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):31607-14.
REF 3 Sp1 regulates chromatin looping between an intronic enhancer and distal promoter of the human heme oxygenase-1 gene in renal cells. J Biol Chem. 2010 May 28;285(22):16476-86.
REF 4 Regulatory mechanisms controlling human hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Nov;21(21):7320-30.
REF 5 Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation of the human Pi class glutathione S-transferase promoter. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 12;271(2):1054-60.
REF 6 Binding and functional effects of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 on the proximal human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase promoter. J Lipid Res. 1998 May;39(5):969-77.
REF 7 Involvement of early growth response factor Egr-1 in apolipoprotein AI gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 24;270(12):7004-10.
REF 8 Characterization of a human apolipoprotein E gene enhancer element and its associated protein factors. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jun 5;265(16):9496-504.
REF 9 Regulation of MCL1 through a serum response factor/Elk-1-mediated mechanism links expression of a viability-promoting member of the BCL2 family to the induction of hematopoietic cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15;274(3):1801-13.
REF 10 Sp1 is essential for both enhancer-mediated and basal activation of the TATA-less human adenosine deaminase promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Feb 25;22(4):669-77.
REF 11 Intracellular cholesterol transport in synchronized human skin fibroblasts. Biochemistry. 1999 Feb 23;38(8):2506-13.
REF 12 Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates alpha 2(I) collagen gene expression through a cis-acting element that contains an Sp1-binding site. J Biol Chem. 1994 May 20;269(20):14828-34.
REF 13 Regulation of transcription of the human erythropoietin receptor gene by proteins binding to GATA-1 and Sp1 motifs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995 Aug 11;23(15):3041-9.
REF 14 The nuclear factor YY1 suppresses the human gamma interferon promoter through two mechanisms: inhibition of AP1 binding and activation of a silence... Mol Cell Biol. 1996 Sep;16(9):4744-53.
REF 15 Transcription factor repression and activation of the human acetylcholinesterase gene. J Biol Chem. 1995 Oct 6;270(40):23511-9.
REF 16 Cell cycle regulation of cdc25C transcription is mediated by the periodic repression of the glutamine-rich activators NF-Y and Sp1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995 Oct 11;23(19):3822-30.
REF 17 The serotonin 1a receptor gene contains a TATA-less promoter that responds to MAZ and Sp1. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 23;271(8):4417-30.
REF 18 Genomic organization and functional characterization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, a major entry co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Biol Chem. 1998 Feb 20;273(8):4754-60.
REF 19 Novel role for Sp1 in phorbol ester enhancement of human platelet thromboxane receptor gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 16;271(33):19696-704.
REF 20 Transcriptional regulation of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene by the orphan nuclear hormone receptor apolipoprotein AI regulatory protein-1. J Biol Chem. 1995 Dec 15;270(50):29916-22.
REF 21 The human uncoupling protein-3 gene promoter requires MyoD and is induced by retinoic acid in muscle cells. FASEB J. 2000 Nov;14(14):2141-3.
REF 22 The Wilms' tumor gene product, WT1, represses transcription of the platelet-derived growth factor A-chain gene. J Biol Chem. 1992 Nov 5;267(31):21999-2002.
REF 23 Identification of a thrombin response element in the human platelet-derived growth factor B-chain (c-sis) promoter. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 9;271(6):3025-32.
REF 24 Acceleration of thrombomodulin gene transcription by retinoic acid: retinoic acid receptors and Sp1 regulate the promoter activity through interactions with two different sequences in the 5'-flanking region of human gene. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 26;276(4):2440-50.
REF 25 Regulation of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 and -beta 3 promoters by transcription factor Sp1. Gene. 1993 Jul 30;129(2):223-8.
REF 26 Stat1 depends on transcriptional synergy with Sp1. J Biol Chem. 1995 Dec 22;270(51):30264-7.
REF 27 Binding of phosphorylated Sp1 protein to tandem Sp1 binding sites regulates alpha2 integrin gene core promoter activity. Blood. 1997 Jul 15;90(2):678-89.
REF 28 Transcription factors ets1, NF-kappa B, and Sp1 are major determinants of the promoter activity of the human protein kinase CK2alpha gene. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jun 16;275(24):18327-36.
REF 29 Identification of an estrogen-mediated deoxyribonucleic acid-binding independent transactivation pathway on the epidermal growth factor receptor gene promoter. Endocrinology. 2000 Jun;141(6):2266-74.
REF 30 The human Pim-1 gene is selectively transcribed in different hemato-lymphoid cell lines in spite of a G + C-rich housekeeping promoter. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Apr;10(4):1680-8.
REF 31 Sp1 cooperates with c-Myc to activate transcription of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT). Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Feb 1;28(3):669-77.
REF 32 Constitutive protection of E2F recognition sequences in the human thymidine kinase promoter during cell cycle progression. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 28;272(48):30483-90.
REF 33 Co-stimulation of promoter for low density lipoprotein receptor gene by sterol regulatory element-binding protein and Sp1 is specifically disrupted by the yin yang 1 protein. J Biol Chem. 1999 May 7;274(19):13025-32.
REF 34 Cell-specific transcription of leukotriene C(4) synthase involves a Kruppel-like transcription factor and Sp1. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 24;275(12):8903-10.
REF 35 Sp1 binding sites and an estrogen response element half-site are involved in regulation of the human progesterone receptor A promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 2000 Jul;14(7):972-85.
REF 36 Transcriptional activation of human 12-lipoxygenase gene promoter is mediated through Sp1 consensus sites in A431 cells. Biochem J. 1997 May 15;324 ( Pt 1):133-40.
REF 37 Minimal sequence and factor requirements for the initiation of transcription from an atypical, TATATAA box-containing housekeeping promoter. J Biol Chem. 1990 Nov 25;265(33):20524-32.
REF 38 Regulation of the catalase gene promoter by Sp1, CCAAT-recognizing factors, and a WT1/Egr-related factor in hydrogen peroxide-resistant HP100 cells. Cancer Res. 2001 Aug 1;61(15):5885-94.
REF 39 Actions of two different cAMP-responsive sequences and an enhancer of the human CYP11A1 (P450scc) gene in adrenal Y1 and placental JEG-3 cells. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 4;269(9):6362-9.
REF 40 Noradrenergic-specific transcription of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene requires synergy of multiple cis-acting elements including at least two Phox2a-binding sites. J Neurosci. 1998 Oct 15;18(20):8247-60.
REF 41 The proximal promoter region of the gene encoding human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 contains GATA, AP-2, and Sp1 response elements: analysis of promoter function in choriocarcinoma cells. Endocrinology. 1997 Aug;138(8):3417-25.
REF 42 Co-operation of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to transcriptional activation of the human haem oxygenase-1 gene promoter in a hepatoma cell line. Biochem J. 2002 Nov 1;367(Pt 3):641-52.
REF 43 Transcriptional regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase by lysophosphatidylcholine. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jun 12;273(24):14885-90.
REF 44 Sp1 and C/EBP-related factor regulate the transcription of human Cu/Zn SOD gene. Gene. 1996 Oct 31;178(1-2):177-85.
REF 45 The human caspase-8 promoter sustains basal activity through SP1 and ETS-like transcription factors and can be up-regulated by a p53-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 25;278(30):27593-604.
REF 46 Estrogen receptor-Sp1 complexes mediate estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 1994 Jun 3;269(22):15912-7.
REF 47 Expression of the dibasic proprotein processing enzyme furin is directed by multiple promoters. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 25;269(12):9298-303.
REF 48 Cloning and functional characterization of the 5' flanking region of the human mitochondrial malic enzyme gene. Regulatory role of Sp1 and AP-2. Eur J Biochem. 2001 May;268(10):3017-27.
REF 49 Transcriptional regulation of the human neuropeptide Y gene by nerve growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1994 Jun 3;269(22):15460-8.
REF 50 Effect of abasic linker substitution on triplex formation, Sp1 binding, and specificity in an oligonucleotide targeted to the human Ha-ras promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 May 25;22(10):1909-16.
REF 51 Sp1 and thyroid hormone receptor differentially activate expression of human growth hormone and chorionic somatomammotropin genes. J Biol Chem. 1991 May 25;266(15):9805-13.
REF 52 Cloning and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human transcription factor Sp1 gene. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 22;276(25):22126-32.
REF 53 Characterization of the transcriptional regulatory region of the human WT1 gene. Oncogene. 1993 Nov;8(11):3123-32.
REF 54 YY1 and Sp1 transcription factors bind the human transferrin gene in an age-related manner. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1996 Jan;51(1):B66-75.
REF 55 Sp1 and Sp3 physically interact and co-operate with GABP for the activation of the utrophin promoter. J Mol Biol. 2001 Mar 9;306(5):985-96.

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